EXCHANGE VISIT #4: JOHN’S INSIGHTS INTO TEA AND FOOD SECURITY
By John Duncan
University of Southampton
I have recently returned from a visit to Assam as part of a wider project assessing the impacts of climate change on tea plantations and the livelihoods of their workers. As highlighted in a Guardian report, tea plantation workers often suffer from the most distressing aspects of poverty beyond, though often consequential from, a lack of income. This Guardian report presented the challenging conditions under which tea plantation workers live and work, leaving families prey to human traffickers. To add to the vulnerabilities highlighted in this report, climate change is also adding to the burden placed on households as they strive to secure a livelihood. The impacts of climate change could have severe, negative impacts on the ability of tea plantation workers to enhance their well-being. Not only could climate change make it more difficult for tea plantation workers to lift themselves out of poverty in a sustainable manner it could make already precarious livelihoods more challenging.
Here, I offer some insights on how climate change could influence one of the key components of well-being; the ability to access sufficient and nutritious food.
Typically people go hungry not through there not being enough to eat but due to not having enough to eat, in other words, a result of barriers in accessing food. This view was articulated by Amartya Sen, the Nobel prize winning economist, when he outlined the various means of entitlement people have to access food. These entitlements typically include access to food via own production (subsistence), trade and purchases, labour, and transfers of food. To illustrate how climate change may exacerbate the vulnerability of tea plantation workers I speculate on how it may influence their ability and means to access food.
One of the most common methods of accessing food is through purchasing it in markets with earned money. This is contingent upon two factors: the ability to earn money and the presence and ability of markets to supply food at affordable prices. Tea plantation workers earn money through labouring on tea estates receiving a daily wage of less than 100 rupees (less than £1 a day). On its own this is a low wage; however, achieving this wage is dependent upon there being work available. Adverse climate change impacts to tea bushes could make them less productive and reducing the available work for tea plucking. This, could, in turn have knock-on effects on take home income and subsequent capacity to purchase food. On the other side, it is well documented that climate change will likely result in decreased crop yields (see chapter on Food Security and Food Production Systems). This could reduce supply and also increase the price of crops in markets. Under future climate change scenarios the same wage may result in less food brought home to feed the household.
Within the tea estates are several small rice fields. Tea plantation workers use the returns from these fields to supplement household food consumption. Numerous studies have documented the vulnerability of rice crops to projected climate change with risks spanning increased warming, shrinking day-night temperature ranges, precipitation variability and extreme heat events. Climate change has the potential to reduce the productivity of these small plots and at the very least increase the variability in returns from them. This will have obvious implications for household food security. Furthermore, the vulnerability of accessing food via these small plots may be amplified by other factors. The tenure and access rights of tea plantation workers to these plots may not be secure. If climate change reduces tea production this land may come under threat if estates expand to counteract productivity shortfalls. Also, tea plantation workers may not have access to agricultural extension and inputs such as new seeds and fertilisers to help them adapt to potential climate changes.
Finally, an important source of food for many poor and vulnerable households in India is subsidised rice via the Targeted Public Distribution Service. Tea plantation workers, holding a below poverty line (BPL) ration card, will be eligible for rice provisions from the state. Households obtain a BPL card through means testing surveys which happen at infrequent intervals. Initial conjecture suggests that based upon a rigid form of targeting food assistance may fail to come to the aid of households who fall victim to variable and short-term shortages of food resulting from direct (e.g. crop loss) or indirect (e.g. price increases) climate impacts.
It is clear that efforts to enhance the well-being of tea plantation workers needs to move beyond focusing on providing increased wages; a much broader, coordinated developmental approach is required. Using the example of food access, increased wages will yield more benefits when coordinated with favourable food markets, and access to productive resources such as land and seeds can be more valuable than increased wages by providing a buffer against market volatility. Furthermore, efforts to improve the livelihoods of workers and labourers in rural supply chains cannot be ignorant of the potential impacts of climate change.